National renewable action plan of the Republic of Serbia (NRAP) (28/06/2013) is a document which encourages the investment in renewable energy sources (RES), and which sets the goals for the use of renewable energy sources until 2020 and the method of their implementation. NRAP has emerged from the international obligation which the Republic of Serbia assumed in 2006. ”Law on the Ratification of the Treaty establishing the Energy Community between European Union and The Republic of Albania, the Republic of Bulgaria, Bosnia and Hercegovina, the Republic of Croatia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the Republic of Montenegro, Romania, the Republic of Serbia and United Nations Interim Mission in Kosovo in accordance with the resolution 1244 of the United Nations Security Council” (2006).
By signing this contract the Republic of Serbia has agreed to apply different directives in the field of renewable energy sources, and in accordance with Directive 2009/28/E3 has accepted binding targets for EU member states to ensure that RES will participate with 20% of gross final consumption at the EU level by 2020, as well as to improve energy efficiency and to increase it by 20% in the same period of time. Annexes specify individual goals for each Member state. The Republic of Serbia has, in accordance with the Directive 2009/28/E3 and the Decision of Ministerial Council of the Energy community (10/18/2012), set itself ambitious goal of a 27% of RES in gross final energy consumption by 2020, and in this regard passed a series of laws, rules and regulations, which is another obligation until the end of 2013 which arose from the Decision of Ministerial Council of the Energy community.
According to the Draft Energy Development Strategy of the Republic of Serbia until 2025 with indications until 2030. (2012) strategic energy development is based on the establishing a balance between production of energy form available sources, energy consumption with a market and socially sustainable character, and a more efficient production and the use of a “cleaner” energy from renewable energy sources (RES). In other words, it is possible to establish a sustainable energy system with a more efficient production of energy from available and renewable sources, and with planned and cost-effective placement . On the other hand, a strategic approach to energy is the road to reducing environmental threats and economic costs.
The latest strategy envisages the following priorities:
1) Ensuring the energy security by reduction of the import dependence, provision of energy oil and natural gas reserves and the construction of new electrical power capacities;
2) Development of the energy market in the framework of EU energy market into which the Republic of Serbia has been integrated by the signing of the Contract on establishing the Energy community, which contributes to the economic development, the stability of the county, and the construction of modern electric power and gas infrastructure.
3) Establishment of sustainable energy system, through the implementation of energy efficiency measures, the use of renewable energy sources and the implementation of standards for the protection of the environment and the reduction of harmful impact on the climate.
In order to develop the energy system it is planned to construct electrical power systems, system for district heating, the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption (GFEC) of 27%, the opening of new surface coal mines, the reduction of dependence on imported oil, construction of gas infrastructure for natural gas production, with a more efficient use of energy with a wide range of application.
The tendency of global energetic is to rely more and more on renewable energy sources and less on non-renewable energy sources, in favour of preserving the environment. Based on the statistics of “green” energy system of Serbia, the renewable energy potential is mostly used in hydro flows, while the rest of the renewable energy sources are still in the development stage. The introduction of the principle of a “cleaner” and a more economical energy sources production, develops and sets to use a more efficient equipment and technology, encourages the projects of a wide range of application, from the small households that are connected to the distribution network up to industrial-scale capacities. Strategic national goals include using all available renewable energy sources in the production of electricity, in heating stations, in the final consumption, as well as in transport.
This Strategy emphasizes that sustainable energy, among other things, is to be accomplished by creating economic, doing business and financial conditions for increasing the share of energy from renewable energy sources.
In National strategy of sustainable development (2008) sector for renewable energy sources, the following goals have been defined:
- extensive research on potential of sustainable energy sources,
- determining the technology for which the introduction of incentive measures and mechanisms is justified,
- adoption of regulations (tax deductions, incentive prices, etc.) for stimulating the use of renewable energy sources,
- increasing the scope of use of renewable energy sources,
- education and awareness raising as an incentive for the inclusion in the production and the use of energy form renewable sources.
Energy Sector Development Strategy of the Republic of Serbia until 2015 (2006) is in accordance with the evaluation of the economic growth, assumed macro-economic indicators and energy factors in the industry and the economy in the degree of the energy development in the country, with defined priorities and achievable reforms, in which context the renewable energy sources are mentioned in the terms of gradual introduction of technologically reliable, energy efficient, economically cost-effective and environmentally likely technology , with an increased and selective use of new and renewable resources which have the status of commercial energy substance.